GLOSSARY

Our clear concise definitions of the plethora of terms used in the therapy community is your key to understanding and communicating with your team.

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POTS Glossary

A

Adaptive response


The ability to respond actively and purposefully to a new environmental challenge. Adaptive responses are required for promoting sensory integration




Activities of Daily Living (ADL)


Everyday routines generally involving personal care and functional mobility such as eating, bathing, dressing, toileting, and meal preparation. Challenges in ADL interfere with independence. A major goal of occupational therapy is facilitate performance of ADL skills.




ADOS


The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is the “gold standard” for assessment and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.




Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)


ABA is a behavioral methodology that systematically applies interventions based upon principles of learning theory and operant conditioning to develop adaptive, prosocial behavior and reduce maladaptive behavior. In ABA targeted behaviors are rewarded with positive reinforcement in order to strengthen/increase the frequency of those behaviors. Treatment techniques include: Discrete Trial Training (DTT), Natural Environment Training (NET); Pivotal Response Training (PRT) and Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS).




Aspberger’s Syndrome (AS)


Asperger syndrome is considered a high functioning form of autism and is no longer a separate entity under the DSM 5. AS is characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction, nonverbal communication, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. It differs from other autism spectrum disorders by its relative preservation of linguistic and cognitive development. Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and atypical use of language are frequently reported. For more information, please click here.




Assessment


Refers to the use of a specific tool in an evaluation process. The terms assessment and evaluation are often used interchangeably.




Auditory Defensiveness


A clinical condition in which a child is highly sensitive to sound.




Auditory Processing


The ability to take in sound and make sense of what one hears




Auditory Discrimination


The ability to differentiate between sounds, such as animal noises, vehicles noises; critical for making sense of language




Auditory Figure-Ground Discrimination


The ability to differentiate foreground sounds from extraneous background noises, for example, to tune into the teacher’s voice in a busy classroom,with chatting children, a hissing radiator, and traffic noises.




Autism


Autism is an umbrella term for a complex developmental disability also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Three core features of autism are: a) social and communication deficits, including difficulty with verbal and non-verbal communication, socialization, and play/leisure skills, b) fixated interests and repetitive or sgterotypical behaviors, such as stacking, lining up or spinning toys, and hand flapping, and c) sensory procesing irregularities, including poor motor planning. Children on the autism spectrum have a wide range of behaviors and abilities. There’s a saying that goes, “If you’ve met one kid with autism, you’ve met one kid with autism.”





B

Body Awareness


An internal "MAP" of one's body parts and how they relate to each other. It enables you to know where your arms, fingers and feet are without looking, how close you are to objects and people and how much force to exert.




Backward Chaining


Teaching a skill by working backward from the goal.




Bilateral Coordination


The ability to use the two sides of the body together in a smoothly coordinated fashion. Movements may be symmetrical, such as in jumping jacks, or asymmetrical, such as holding a paper with one hand while writing with the other.




Body Position in Space


The sense of where one’s body is in relationship to gravity and to other objects in the environment. Necessary to solidly sit on a chair, maintain one’s space at circle time and follow directions related to the body such as, “stand behind the line.”




Brushing


Shorthand term for the Wilbarger deep-touch-pressure protocol used by occupational therapists to decrease tactile defensiveness and facilitate calming and organization.





C

Crossing the Midline


The ability of each hand and foot to function on other side of the body. It enables us to sit in a chair and color without leaning or falling to the side; to write left to right, and throw a ball like a baseball player, pulling the arm back and letting the ball go over the opposite foot."




Complex Rotation


Turning or rolling of an object with the finger pads between 180°-360°, such as twirling a pencil.




Contralateral


On the opposite side of the body.




Coordination


The ability to use different parts of the body together smoothly and efficiently.





D

Deep Touch Pressure


The surface pressure that is exerted in most types of firm touching, holding, stroking or swaddling. Examples are hugging, wrestling, sleeping under heavy blankets, and wearing a pressure garment or weighted vest. Deep pressure is calming.




Defensive Reaction


An innate self-protective response that occurs when the sensory system alerts one to actual or perceived danger.




The Developmental, Individual-difference, Relationship-based (DIR) Model:


DIR is a developmental model posits that children with deficits in relating and communicating, including those with autism, have restrictions in the stages of functional emotional development. By mastering emotional milestones that were missed in early development and are critical to learning, children can achieve social, emotional, intellectual growth and learn to relate, love, communicate and think logically and creatively. Treatment addresses mitigating surface symptoms and behaviors. The DIR Model was pioneered by Dr. Stanley Greenspan. “Floortime” is the primary treatment approach.




Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)


The child with DCD (dyspraxia) has difficulty thinking of, planning, sequencing and/or executing skilled movements especially novel movement patterns, which limits the performance of motor skills. Children may present with repetitive behaviors or restrict themselves to a few simple movement paradigms such as lining up toys or throwing. They often have difficulty imitating (as in Simon Says) and/or following directions for movement and appear clumsy.




Directionality


The ability to determine right and left on other people and objects. Directionality enables you to detect how words appear left to right on a page of text and distinguish between b/d and p/q.




Distractibility


The inability to attend to a particular stimulus. May be more prevalent in one sensory system (e.g., sound) than another (e.g., visual stimuli).




Dyscalculia


A specific learning difficulty which affects children’s ability to acquire math skills, limiting their ability to perform arithmetic operations, learn number facts and execute mathematical procedures. It can exist in children with normal or superior intellect, and does not imply low intelligence or poor educational potential.




Dyspraxia


Difficulty thinking of, planning,organizing, sequencing and/or executing skilled movements, especially novel movement patterns, which limits the performance of motor skills. Children may present with repetitive behaviors or restrict themselves to a few simple movement paradigms such as lining up toys or throwing. They often have difficulty imitating (as in Simon Says) and/or following directions for movement and appear clumsy. Dyspraxia is a sub-type of Sensory-Based Motor Disorder.





E

Early intervention (EI)


A statewide program that provides a variety of therapeutic services to meet the needs of infants and toddlers, from birth to 3 years old, who meet specific requirements. Occupational, physical and speech therapy are among the services provided.




Echolalia


Echolalia or scripted speech is immediate and constant repetition of words or phrases.




Evaluation


A systematic process of gathering and interpreting data in order to ascertain a child's developmental level; identify strengths and challenges and their impact on function; document current levels of function; and determine change in ability over time.




Executive Functioning


refers to the skills that allow us to organize, plan, problem solve, inhibit responses, transition between tasks, and monitor work and other behaviors.




Eye-Hand Coordination


The ability of eyes and hands to work together for a wide range of skills such as, swatting a mobile, catching a ball, drawing, cutting and using a ruler.





F

FAPE


In the United States all qualified persons with disabilities within the jurisdiction of a school district are entitled to a Free Appropriate Public Education. What constitutes FAPE, is open to discussion and debate.




Fidget Toys


Small objects with sensory appeal that a child can hold in his/her hands and fiddle with. Fidgeting has been shown to help some children focus.




Fight-or-Flight Response


An instinctive reaction to protect oneself in response to a real or perceived threat. The child may freeze on the spot, lash out seemingly aggressively, withdraw into himself or runaway.




Fine Motor Coordination


Skilled use of all the small muscles of the hands, eyes and mouth. Fine motor coordination is necessary to manipulate small items such as windup-toys, pegs, buttons, snaps, coins, cards.




Floortime


The cornerstone, or engine that drives the DIR model. It is 1. A specific technique where for 20 or more minutes mommy or daddy gets down on the floor with the child; 2. A general philosophy that characterizes all the interactions with the child, because all interactions have to incorporate the features of Floortime as well as the particular goals of that interaction, be it speech therapy or occupational therapy or a special set of educational goals. Floortime utilizes two primary techniques: 1. Following the child's lead; harnessing the child’s natural interests. 2. Joining the child's world and pulling him/her into a shared world in order to help him/her master each Functional Emotional Developmental Capacity.




Forward Chaining


A method of teaching a skill in which the child repeats the beginning steps over and over until s/he becomes very proficient, then progressively adds the next step, until the whole skill is acquired.




Figure-Ground Discrimination


The ability to focus on one specific piece of information in a busy background, such as picking out “hidden pictures” or Waldo, finding one’s place on a page and finding, or locating items in a messy backpack.




Form Constancy


The ability to recognize objects as they change size, shape, or orientation or are viewed from a different angle or in a different environment. This skill helps a child to realize that a letter remains the same no matter where it is seen!




Fine Motor Control


The ability to manipulate precise movements, such as handwriting, stringing beads and buttoning.





G

Grading Movement


The ability to use the right amount of pressure. A function of proprioception.




Gravitational Insecurity


An extreme fear of having one’s feet off of the ground, or changing head position in space (such as when laying a baby down to change its diaper or attempting a somersault). Renders it difficult for a child to interact on playground and gym equipment. A function of the vestibular system.




Gross Motor Coordination


Skilled use of the large muscles of the trunk, arms and legs, such as in dancing, running, jumping, hopping and playing sports.




Gross Motor Control


The ability to move a large muscle group or segment of the anatomy, such as jumping, climbing or waving an arm.





H

Hand Preferance


Colloquially called hand "dominance" or "handedness." It reflects mature lateralization of the brain. Lack of hand preference, or confusion about hand preference, directly impacts fine motor skills. It is often associated with poor trunk rotation and bilateral incoordination




Heavy Work


Resistive activities designed to provide proprioceptive input to increase body awareness and sense of body space.




Hyperacusis


Reduced tolerance and increased sensitivity to everyday sounds that most people hardly notice. Sufferers often complain of living in a world in which the volume is turned up too high.




Hyperreactivity


A response to sensory input that seems excessive—usually characterized by withdrawal and avoidance, or craving of that sensation.




Hyperlexia


An intense fascination with letters and numbers and a precocious, self-taught advanced reading ability which appears before age 5, in contrast with significant difficulty understanding and developing spoken language.




Hypersensitivity


Oversensitivity to sensory stimuli. A child may tune into noises, wind currents, etc. that do usually reach our level of consciousness.




Hyporeactivity


An underreaction to sensation that normally elicits a response.




Hyposensitvity


Under-sensitivity to sensory input. May result in craving that input, or not responding to it unless it is very intense.





I

Ideation


The ability to conceive a novel idea; for example, different ways to use a particular toy or piece of equipment.




Ideational Praxis


The ability to conceive of a novel idea, for example, different ways to use a particular toy or piece of equipment.




Individualized Education Plan (IEP)


A written document that includes the child's’ current skill level; enumerates the related services they are entitled to, including occupational therapy; and the annual goals to meet the unique educational needs of the student with a disability.




Inner Drive


A child's self-motivation to participate in experiences that promote sensory integration.




Inner Ear


Organ that responds to vestibular input (the pull of gravity, balance and change in head position).




Interoception


Interoceptors are internal sensors that provide a sense of what our internal organs are feeling, such as hunger or thirst.




In Hand Manipulation


The ability to move and position one or more objects within one hand without using the other hand to assist, including translation, shift and rotation.




Ipsilateral


On the same side of the body.




Interactive Metronome (IM)


IM is an assessment and treatment tool administered to improve attention, coordination, motor planning, sequencing and timing, and language processing. It can benefit children with sensory processing disorders, coordination deficits, motor planning challenges, attentional deficits, aggression and impulsivity.





J


K

Kinesthesia


The conscious awareness of joint position and body position that enalbes us to interface with the environment, such as knowing where to place one’s feet to climb the stairs or how to get a spoon to the mouth without looking.





L

Lateralization


The process of establishing a preference of one side of the brain. Practically this results in hand preference, using the hands together skillfully and ability to cross the midline of the body.




Light Touch


Superficial stimulation of the skin, such as tickling, moving hairs on the skin, tags, or a bug on the skin. It activates receptors in the protective touch system. Over-responsiveness to light touch can result in tactile defensiveness.




Linear Movement


Movement in a straight line, back and forth, side to side and up and down.




Low muscle tone (Hypotonia)


Lack of adequate tension in the resting muscle, often resulting in muscles that seem loose or floppy. Children may have poor posture, rapid fatigue, delayed motor skills, muscle weakness, and/or coordination problems.




Laterality


The ability to know right from left on oneself. Laterality enables you to know which hand to place over your heart when you recite the Pledge of Allegiance.





M

Manual Therapy


Hands on techniques used to effect structural changes in body systems. Can help with orthopedic and posture problems, oral motor issues, digestive and other system problems. Examples are cranio-sacral therapy and myofascial release.




Medek


A therapeutic intervention for infants and young children with abnormal motor development that utilizes the influence of gravity and distal support to provoke spontaneous postural-functional reactions to improve gross motor development.




Motor Planning


The process of sequencing and organizing a physical plan for action in response to a novel environmental demand.




Muscle Tone


The degree of tension normally present in a relaxed muscle.




Motor Control


The ability to use the brain to activate and coordinate the muscles and limbs to initiate and perform physical skills. Motor control is an integrated product of the muscles, bones, and the central nervous system. There are two subsets, gross motor control and fine motor control.





N

Neural Plasticity


The ability of the brain to change its architecture as a result of experience in different environments and activities. This is a powerful premise for sensory integration treatment.




NDT


Neurodevelopmental Therapy is a hands-on treatment approach for individuals with central nervous system pathophysiology, such as hypotonia, hypertonia or ataxia. Direct handling, positioning and guidance of the child's movements are used to optimize function.





O

Occupational Therapy


A health profession that helps children improve the functioning of their nervous system in order to develop skills that will enable them to function independently in their daily activities.




Occupational Therapy - Sensory Integration (OT - SI)


Therapy based on the premise that difficulty interpreting and acting on sensory information affects the ability to participate fully in everyday activities including eating, dressing, learning and play.




Occupational Therapy Evaluation


A systematic process of gathering and interpreting data in order to ascertain a child's developmental level, identify strengths and challenges, and determine their impact on current ability to meet the demands of every life.




Olfactory Sense


Related to the sense of smell.





P

Passive Touch


The act of being touched by someone else.




Play


Engaging in an activity for enjoyment and recreation rather than a practical purpose.




Playful Obstruction


A floortime technique used to lengthen an interaction. When a child does not allow you to join in his/her play - you can playfully get in the child's way so that he/she has to deal with you to get what he/she wants.




Postural Background Movements


Subtle spontaneous body adjustments that enable us to maintain our center of gravity and our shift weight, keeping the head and body in alignment. These movements enable us to sit up and stand straight, and prepare the motor system for isolated voluntary motor activity. If we can’t make the small movements extraneous do movement, become necessary.. For example, we need to stand a certain way to kick a ball effectively.




Postural Disorder (PD)


Children with this type of Sensory Based Motor Disorder (SBMD) demonstrate poor core strength, low endurance, poor balance and poor body awareness. They are often unwilling to move, sedentary and move slowly and cautiously.




Postural Stability


A trunk strong enough to support the body for motor performance such as sitting and writing, running, jumping, climbing, etc. Requires core strength.




Praxis


The ability to have an idea; organize and sequence (motor plan) the actions and execute them in a coordinated fashion in response to a novel environmental demand.




Processing Speed


The pace at which you take in information, make sense of it and begin to respond. The information can be visual, such as letters and numbers or auditory, such as spoken language.




Prompt


A cue or hint to induce the child to perform a desired behavior. A prompt is a temporary crutch that can be faded when it is no longer needed.




Proprioception


The "position sense;" the unconscious awareness of sensations coming from our joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments, that provide us with an internal map of how our body parts are related, and the effort used to move them.




Postural Control


The ability to assume, maintain and restore a state of balance during any posture or activity. It underlies a child’s ability to assume and maintain upright posture while seated without support. To learn more click here





Q


R

Reinforcement


A consequence of behavior that is used to increase its occurrence and promote learning. It is after the fact, as compared to a bribe, which is given BEFORE a behavior has occurred.




Rotation


Movement around a single axis such as spinning or orbiting; a powerful form of vestibular input.





S

Self-Help Skills


Activities of daily living, such as dressing, toileting, eating, bathing and grooming.




Self-Regulation


The ability to maintain the appropriate level of alertness for a given activity. A well-regulated child will go though most of the day in a quiet alert state, without being distracted and inattentive, and transition smoothly between daily activities. For more information click here




Sensorimotor Skills


Sensorimotor skills involve the process of receiving sensory input and producing a motor response . Sensory information is culled from our bodies and the environment through our sensory systems (vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, vestibular, and proprioception), and is then organized and processed to enable us to produce an movement response to support success in daily tasks. Motor planning is a critical part of sensorimotor skills.




Sensory-Based Motor Disorder (SBMD)


A motor challenge with an underlying sensory basis characterized by poor postural control and dyspraxia. Difficulty may emerge in balance, motor coordination, and motor planning.




Sensory Craving


A sub-type of Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD), it is an almost insatiable drive to obtain sensory input. Sensory cravers tend to constantly move, crash, bump, jump, touch everything around them, seem overly affectionate and/or fail to understand personal space.




Sensory Diet


A schedule of activities that provides the sensory experiences a child needs to bolster his sensory processing and become more self-regulated.




Sensory Over-Responsivity (SOR)


Children with SOR are more sensitive to sensory stimulation than most others children. Their bodies feel sensation too easily or too intensely, and they tend to react negatively or with alarm to sensory input which is generally experienced as harmless or non-irritating.Thus they often are “sensory defensive,” and try to avoid or minimize sensations, such as, withdrawing from being touched or covering their ears to avoid loud sounds.




Sensory Defensiveness


A “fight or flight” response to sensation, such as being touched unexpectedly or loud noise, frequently experienced by children with Sensory Over-Responsivity (SOR). Children who are sensory defensive attempt to avoid or minimize those noxious sensation, for example, withdrawing from touch and plugging their ears in a noisy place.




Sensory Overload


Also known as sensory overstimulation; it occurs when sensory experiences from the environment are too great for an individual’s nervous system to successfully process or make meaning from the sensory experience. A common example of this is a carnival/fair including the smell of barn animals and food, sound of other screaming children, amusement rides, and buzzers from games, car engines revving, touch stimuli from bumping into people within a crowd, the visual input of fast paced movement including blinking lights, fast moving rides, people and cars etc. In this example there is an abundance of sensory experiences entering the carnival goers nervous system all at once, which commonly leads to shut down, tantrums, or other negative behaviors that are associated by an overwhelmed nervous system (or sensory overload) that can not efficiently process the smell, sound, taste, touch, sight, and movement of the environment all at once.




Sensory Discrimination Disorder (SDD)


Difficulty interpreting subtle qualities of objects, places, people or other environments. Subtypes are: Visual, Auditory, Tactile, Taste/smell, Position/movement, and Interoception Discrimination Disorders. SDD is a sub-type of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD).




Sensory Gym


A Specialized sensory-rich gym designed to help over- (or under-) sensitive kids, outfitted with specialized equipment such as swings, bolsters and climbing equipment designed to provide intense sensory input. For information click here




Sensory Integration (SI)


The process by which the brain organizes sensory information from the body and the environment to plan and execute (adaptive) responses to meet challenges, learn and succeed in daily life tasks.




Sensory Integration Dysfunction


Also known as Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD): A neurological disorder that results from the brain's misinterpretation of sensory information such as touch, sound and movement. Sufferers may be overwhelmed by sensation, crave it or fail to register it. SPD may result in challenges in motor skills, learning, social/emotional skills, attention and behavior.




Sensory Integration (SI) Treatment


An occupational therapy technique that utilizes meaningful activities to enhance registration, intake and integration of sensory information for adaptive functioning in daily life. It is best provided in a sensory gym that offers frequent intense sensory input that is not typically available elsewhere.




Sensory Modulation


The ability to regulate incoming neural messages by facilitating or inhibiting responses to sensory stimuli. Filtering (dampening and heightening) the senses, such as sound, sight and touch, is essential for self regulation.




Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD)


A subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) in which children have difficulty regulating their responses to sensory stimuli. Subtypes include over-responding (SOR) or under-responding (SUR) to sensory stimuli, or craving sensation (SS).




Sensory Over-Responsivity (SOR)


A sub-type of Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD), in which children respond too much, too soon, or for too long to sensory stimuli most people find benign. They commonly demonstrate sensory defensive behaviors, avoidance or “fight or flight” responses.




Sensory Processing


The process by which the nervous system receives messages from the senses, such as touch, sound and movement, registers, interprets and integrates them and turns them into functional responses.




Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD)


A condition in which children misinterpret everyday sensory information, such as touch, sound and movement. Some feel bombarded and overwhelmed by sensory information; others don't tune into the sensory information (sounds, sights, etc,) around them. Some seek out intense sensory experiences, some avoid them and others ignore sensory input.




Sensory Seeking





Sensory Under-Responsive (SUR)


Individuals who are under-responsive to sensory stimuli are often quiet and passive, disregarding or not responding to stimuli of the usual intensity available in their sensory environment. They may appear withdrawn, difficult to engage and or self absorbed because they do not detect the sensory input in their environment. Their under-responsivity to tactile and deep pressure input may lead to poor body awareness, clumsiness or movements that are not graded appropriately. These children may not perceive objects that are too hot or cold or they may not notice pain in response to bumps, falls, cuts, or scrapes.




Shaping Behavior


Teaching a child a skill in increments, by reinforcing successful approximations of the behavior.




Social Skills


Any skills that facilitate interaction and communication with others. Social skills include: reading a social situation, social appropriateness, how to greet someone, turn-taking, maintaining a conversation and eye contact.




Somatosensory


Referring to the senses of touch and proprioception.




Splinter Skill


An isolated skill that can be developed by over-teaching and practice that does not generalize to other tasks.




Stereognosis


The ability to perceive and recognize the form of an object by using tactile information from texture, size, spatial properties, and temperature, etc., in the absence of visual and auditory information. Also known as haptic perception.




Suspension Equipment


Equipment that hangs from the ceiling, such as swings. It is used to provide enhanced, intense vestibular and proprioceptive input through rich, challenging movement activities, and promote the child’s active participation, thereby enhancing the level of the adaptive response.




Shift


The linear movement of an object on the finger surface to allow repositioning of the object on the pads of the fingers, such as moving the fingers up and down the shaft of a pencil to position them at the tip of the pencil.




Simple Rotation


Turning or rolling of an object with the finger pads no more than approximately 90°, such as unscrewing a bottle cap or activating a wind-up toy.




Sensory Input


The stimuli that are perceived by our senses, including smell, sight, touch, taste, hearing, movement and proprioception.




Sensory Reactivity


The physiological reaction that occurs when a person is exposed to sensory stimuli.




Sequencing


Ordering movements, sounds, sights, objects, letters, thoughts, etc, in time and space.





T

Tactile Defensiveness


Negative reaction to harmless light touch such as a tap on the shoulder, a clothing tag, gooey substances or close proximity.




Tactile Discrimination


The ability to distinguish different tactile properties of objects; the awareness of being touched.




Tactile System


The sensory system that receives the sensations of light touch, pressure, vibration, movement, pain and temperature through receptors in the skin.




Task Analysis


The process of breaking a skill into its component parts.




Therapeutic Listening


An auditory adjunct to sensory integration treatment provided through specialized headphones using specially filtered and gated music to achieve goals such as improved self-regulation, spatial awareness, decreased tactile defensiveness and improving attention. CD’s are selected by the therapist to achieve specific goals and usually upgraded or changed every 2 weeks. Must be provided by an occupational therapist trained in this technique.




Transition


The ability to move an object from the palm of the hand to the fingertips and back to the palm, such as moving coins from the palm of the hand to the fingertips to insert them in a piggy bank.




Translation


The ability to move an object from the palm of the hand to the fingertips and back to the palm, such as moving coins from the palm of the hand to the fingertips to insert them in a piggy bank





U


V

Vestibular System


The sensory system that responds to changes in head position and movement. Coordinates movements of the eyes, head and body; enables us to feel the pull of gravity. Receptors are in the inner ear.




Visual Perception


The process that enables the brain to interpret (analyze and give meaning to) the visual information that surrounds us.




Visualization


The ability to form mental images of objects or people.




Visual Closure


The ability to perceive an object or word, even when it is partly hidden.




Visual Discrimination


The ability to to be aware of the distinctive features of forms such as shape, size, color, and orientation.




Visual Memory


The ability to recall or remember the visual details of what was seen. Long-term visual memory refers to the ability to remember something seen in the past. Short-term visual memory refers to the ability to recall something that is seen very recently. It is essential for recognizing letters, sight words, spelling and reading comprehension.




Visual Sequential Memory


The ability to perceive and remember a sequence of objects, letters, words, and other symbols in the same order as originally seen.




VIsual-Motor Coordination


The ability of the eyes to guide the hands.




Visual-Spatial Processing


The ability to discern where objects are in external space, including one’s body parts. It enable us tell how far objects are from oneself and from each other, and develop spatial concepts, such as right and left, front and back, and up and down. It essential for map reading, math, reading and sports.




VIsual Spatial Relations


The ability to perceive the relationships of objects position in space. Two important considerations are laterality and directionality. Spatial relations enables children to write without reversals, put clothing on right-side up and follow directional instructions.




Visual Training (aka Vision Therapy)


A technique used by developmental optometrists to strengthen eye-muscle movements and visual perception to prepare the eyes for reading, writing, learning and sports.




Vision Therapy (aka Visual Training)


A technique used by developmental optometrists to strengthen eye-muscle movements and visual perception to prepare the eyes for reading, writing, learning and sports.




Vestibular Input


Movement, which stimulates the semicircular canals, which enables us to coordinates the movements of our eyes, head and body which affects balance, muscle tone, visual-spatial perception, auditory-language perception and emotional security. Spinning, turning, flipping, and climbing provide vestibular input.





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X


Y


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